Scale Up vs Scale Out | Data Center Infrastructure | ServerWatch

Scalability is a system’s ability to swiftly enlarge or reduce the power or size of computing, storage, or networking infrastructure thereby adapting to resource demands, optimizing costs, and improving the operations team efficiency.

Scaling up is adding further resources, like hard drives and memory, to increase the computing capacity of physical servers.
Scaling out is adding more servers to your architecture to spread the workload across more machines.

A good indicator of when to scale up is when your workloads start reaching performance limits, resulting in increased latency. Only the throughput can be increased, but when you hit any hardware bottleneck to extend the hardware, we need to scale out.

Based on use case , operational cost, rack space and forecasted workload demands, customer can choose to prefer scale up or scale out.

Source: Scale Up vs Scale Out | Data Center Infrastructure | ServerWatch

Micron 9300 NVMe drive product family review

Configuration
Form Factor: U.2 2.5″ 15mm
Storage Interface: PCIe Gen3 x4 NVMe
NAND: Micron 64 layer 3D TLC NAND
PRO is read intensive, available in 3.84 TB, 7.68 TB and 15.36 TB
MAX is Mixed use, available in 3.2 TB, 6.4 TB and 12.8 TB.

Reliability
2 million device hours

Power
Seq. read 14W Max
Seq. write 21W Max

Oper. temp
0-70C

Performance
Seq. Read(MB/s) – 3500
Seq. Write (MB/s) – 3100-3500
Rand. Read(K IOPS) – 835-850
Rand Write(K IOPS) – 105-310
Average Latency – 86us for rand read and 11us for rand write.
Workload optimized for high speed random reads and writes. Good for Tier1 caching drives.

Target Market segments
Best fit for below applications.
AI/ML/DL training and caching.
Database acceleration.
OLTP and HFT
No SQL database and large object database
Big Data

Refer Datasheet

Compute Express Link or CXL What it is?

Compute Express Link is a cache-coherent link meant to help systems, especially those with accelerators, operate more efficiently.

CXL uses 3 main protocol.
1. CXL.io – used for initialization, link-up, device discovery and enumeration, and register access.
2. CXL.cache – defines interactions between a Host (usually a CPU) and Device (such as a CXL memory module or accelerator.
3. CXL.memory – protocol that provides a Host processor (usually a CPU) with direct access to Device-attached memory using load/ store commands.

Typical use case
Type 1 one can think of as an accelerator like a NIC that accesses the host CPU’s memory directly. Type 2 is a case where we have an accelerator, like a GPU with memory, and the GPU can access host memory while the host CPU can access GPU memory. Type 3 one can think of as a memory module where its primary purpose is to expose the CXL memory device’s media to the host CPU. Nice detailed article and video can be found in the below source.

Source: Compute Express Link or CXL What it is and Examples – ServeTheHome

Russia – Ukraine war – 06/05/22(101/120 days) 90 days is culminating point for Russian phase2 strategy of capturing Donbas.

Status

Overall 20% land lost by Ukraine. 80% in Luhansk and 50% in Donetsk. More damage happening to Ukraine due to lack of long range weapons. US and allies now trying to balance the war with long range weapons. War is now concentrated over Severodonetsk. Remaining major Luhansk city. The winning strategy in this war is not on how many weapons or soldiers lost, its how much land and infrastructure you lost.

Possible Outcomes(More likely to less likely)

  1. Russia may decide to stop the war after capturing Severodonetsk and decide to hold on the 20%. War will continue under the hood like how it was from 2014 to 2021. Once the long range weapons are delivered to Ukraine, Ukraine will have the upper hand to create a stalemate in Donbas. Next possible solution to end the war for Russia is threatening to the use of tactical nuclear weapons or chinese invasion on Taiwan. As all of us knows US cannot share nuclear weapons to Ukraine.
  2. Putin thrown out. I doubt it will not happen as foreign media claims. Putin is converting the economic sanctions to gains. More over world and Russian people knows the involvement of NATO in the war and the period of 1990 – 2008 how some countries were destroyed by NATO. Majority of Russians may consider Putin as their savior.
  3. Phase 2 to continue for few more months/years and the entire Donbas is captured. Less likely. I doubt Russia will repeat Afghanistan in Ukraine.

Other possible areas of development

  1. Ukraine may launch a full offense on Kherson.

What needs to be filtered from media

Media shows only Ukraine hitting with pin point accuracy. Russia using conventional ways. What we see is only one side of the war. Most of the Russian media propoganda remains inside Russia. The way Russia attack is to cover all 3 sides and capture the supply lines and then capture them as a whole. Since technology is advanced Ukraine soldiers are able to escape on timely manner.
Within one month of war the propoganda was talking about Russia out of ammunitions. Russia is just capturing Ukraine ammunitions and handing over to soldiers in Donbas and not deperate on ammunitions. I see the Russian strategy of leaving Kiev and holding on to Donbas is working well. The Russian declaration of ending the war is nearby.

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