The long-awaited counteroffensive last year failed. Russia has recaptured Avdiivka, its biggest war gain in nine months. President Volodymyr Zelensky has been forced to quietly acknowledge the new military reality. The Biden Administration’s strategy is now to sustain Ukrainian defense until after the U.S. presidential elections, in the hope of wearing down Russian forces in a long war of attrition.

This strategy seems sensible enough, but contains one crucially important implication and one potentially disastrous flaw, which are not yet being seriously addressed in public debates in the West or Ukraine. The implication of Ukraine standing indefinitely on the defensive—even if it does so successfully—is that the territories currently occupied by Russia are lost. Russia will never agree at the negotiating table to surrender land that it has managed to hold on the battlefield.

This does not mean that Ukraine should be asked to formally surrender these lands, for that would be impossible for any Ukrainian government. But it does mean that—as Zelensky proposed early in the war with regard to Crimea and the eastern Donbas—the territorial issue will have to be shelved for future talks.

The Russian strategy at present appears to be different. They have drawn Ukrainians into prolonged battles for small amounts of territory like Avdiivka, where they have relied on Russian superiority in artillery and munitions to wear them down through constant bombardment. They are firing three shells to every one Ukrainian; and thanks in part to help from Iran, Russia has now been able to deploy very large numbers of drones.

russia uses iran-made drones for attacks


In 2017, Thailand agreed to buy a submarine from China for $369 million. However, in October 2023, Thailand’s defense minister announced the suspension of the purchase:

  • The government accepted the Royal Thai Navy’s proposal to instead procure a frigate from China with the funding allocated for the submarine.
  • The frigate will be a “diplomatic substitute” to the Chinese-built S26T diesel-electric attack submarine.
  • The Yuan-class is a diesel-electric submarine designed to operate in shallow coastal waters.


On 21 September 2022, seven months into the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russia declared a partial mobilization of military reservists. The decision was made a day after the announcement of the Russian annexation of the DPRLPRKherson and Zaporizhzhia oblasts.

The announcement of mobilization was seen as a significant escalation of Russia’s military efforts in the war with Ukraine. Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu announced that Russia had a “huge mobilization reserve” and planned to mobilize 300,000 recruits.The precise details of the mobilization plans are currently unclear, however, as the exact number of people to be mobilized is classified.

russian soldier preparing somewhere in siberia

russian soldiers in syria

On 28 October, Shoigu told Russian president Vladimir Putin that mobilization had been completed, which was followed an announcement by Putin of its completion. However, it has been speculated that mobilization will only end after Putin signs a relevant decree, and that covert mobilization would still occur. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov refuted this claim, but as of late December numerous military analysts and media outlets maintain that mobilization continues to take place in Russia.

Native nameЧастичная мобилизация в России (Chastichnaya mobilizatsiya v Rossii)
Date21 September 2022 – present[1][a]
CauseRussian invasion of UkraineUkrainian counteroffensives in Russian-occupied Kharkiv and Kherson oblasts[2]Annexation of Russian-occupied territories of Ukraine[citation needed]Heavy casualties during the Russian invasion of Ukraine Lack of manpower (especially infantrymen), in comparison to the fully-mobilized Ukrainian Military
Organised byRussian Ministry of Defense
Mobilization plan≈300,000 people (according to the Ministry of Defense)Clause No. 7, which details the exact number of people to be mobilized, is classified.
from wikipedia

According to The Moscow Times, Russian authorities had repeatedly rejected the possibility of mobilization at least 15 times prior to the announcement of partial mobilization.For example, on 8 March, Vladimir Putin publicly promised that no reservists would be called upon to fight in Ukraine.

Russia had previously avoided declaring mobilization in Ukraine until this point. Previously, mobilizations were conducted in the Russian Empire during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904 and at the beginning of World War I in 1914. The Soviet Union mobilized its population and industry following the 1941 Nazi German invasion during World War II.

On 19 February 2022, general mobilization began in the Donetsk and Luhansk People’s Republics (DNR and LNR), which at that time were not recognized by any sovereign state, including Russia. Tens of thousands of local residents were forcibly mobilized for the war (according to one estimate, up to 140,000 people by mid-June 2022).

The mobilization was accompanied by mass raids on men of military age. In the enterprises of the region, up to 80% of employees were called up, which led to shutdown of mines and public transport, as well as the paralysis of cities and public services. To avoid mobilization, residents hid or tried to illegally leave the republics.

The mobilization revealed numerous problems of the armed forces of the DNR and LNR. Recruits without training and combat experience found themselves on the front lines without adequate supplies: the units lacked uniforms, weapons, food, and medicines. Human rights activists reported a huge death toll among mobilized recruits in clashes with the better-trained Ukrainian military – up to 30,000 as of August 2022.

Distribution of mobilization summonses for reservists began in April. The summonses handed out did not indicate the purpose of the call-up. Presumably, they were sent out to invite men to military registration and enlistment offices, where they would draft contracts to take part in the mobilization of reserves.

video of putin announcing the mobilization.


the war started on oct. 7 when hamas and islamic jihad sent around 1000 fighters into israel who killed 1,200 israelis.

one of the flags showing resistance against israel’s occupation.(of west bank and gaza)

this is also one of the posters after israeli invasion of gaza.

israeli prime minister benjamin netanyahu announces war against hamas.

for knowing more about this war we must know about hamas


The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLOArabic: منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية Munaẓẓamat at-Taḥrīr al-Filasṭīniyyah) is a Palestinian nationalist coalition that is internationally recognized as the official representative of the Palestinian people.

Founded in 1964, it initially sought to establish an Arab state over the entire territory of the former Mandatory Palestine, advocating the elimination of the State of Israel. However, in 1993, the PLO recognized Israeli sovereignty with the Oslo I Accord, and now only seeks Arab statehood in the Palestinian territories (the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) that have been militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 Arab–Israeli War.


Hamas, militant Palestinian nationalist and Islamist movement in the West Bank and Gaza Strip that is dedicated to the establishment of an independent Islamic state in historical Palestine. Founded in 1987, Hamas opposed the secular approach of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, rejected attempts to cede any part of Palestine, and embraced the use of violence, including acts of terrorism, as a means to achieve its goals. 

The Gaza War, also known as Operation Cast Lead (Hebrew: מִבְצָע עוֹפֶרֶת יְצוּקָה),also known as the Gaza Massacre (Arabic: مجزرة غزة), and referred to as the Battle of al-Furqan (معركة الفرقان) by Hamas, was a three-week armed conflict between Gaza Strip Palestinian paramilitary groups and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) that began on 27 December 2008 and ended on 18 January 2009 with a unilateral ceasefire. The conflict resulted in 1,166–1,417 Palestinian and 13 Israeli deaths. Over 46,000 homes were destroyed in Gaza, making more than 100,000 people homeless.

six month long ceasefire between Israel and Hamas ended on 4 November, when the IDF made a raid into Deir al-Balah, central Gaza to destroy a tunnel, killing several Hamas militants. Israel said the raid was a preemptive strike and Hamas intended to abduct further Israeli soldiers,[37][38] while Hamas characterized it as a ceasefire violation,[37][39] and responded with rocket fire into Israel.[40][41] Attempts to renew a truce between Israel and Hamas were unsuccessful. On December 27, Israel began Operation Cast Lead with the stated aim of stopping rocket fire.[42][43] In the initial air assault, Israel attacked police stations, military targets including weapons caches and suspected rocket firing teams, as well as political and administrative institutions, striking in the densely populated cities of GazaKhan Yunis and Rafah.[44] After hostilities broke out, Palestinian groups fired rockets in retaliation for the aerial bombardments and attacks.[45] The international community considers indiscriminate attacks on civilians and civilian structures that do not discriminate between civilians and military targets as illegal under international law

An Israeli ground invasion began on 3 January. On 5 January, the IDF began operating in the densely populated urban centers of Gaza. During the last week of the offensive (from 12 January), Israel mostly hit targets it had damaged before and struck Palestinian rocket-launching units.[49] Hamas intensified its rocket and mortar attacks against mostly civilian targets in southern Israel, reaching the major cities of Beersheba and Ashdod for the first time during the conflict.[50][51][52] Israeli politicians ultimately decided against striking deeper within Gaza amid concerns of higher casualties on both sides and rising international criticism.[citation needed] The conflict ended on 18 January, when the IDF first declared a unilateral ceasefire, followed by Hamas’ announcing a one-week ceasefire twelve hours later.[6][7] The IDF completed its withdrawal on 21 January.[53]

In September 2009, a UN special mission, headed by the South African Justice Richard Goldstone, produced a report accusing both Palestinian militants and the Israeli army of war crimes and possible crimes against humanity, and recommended bringing those responsible to justice.[54] In 2011, Goldstone wrote that he does not believe that Israel intentionally targeted civilians in Gaza as a matter of explicit policy.[55] The other authors of the report, Hina JilaniChristine Chinkin, and Desmond Travers, stated that no new evidence had been gathered that disputed the report’s findings.[56][57] The United Nations Human Rights Council ordered Israel to conduct various repairs of the damages. On 21 September 2012, the United Nations Human Rights Council concluded that 75% of civilian homes destroyed in the attack were not rebuilt

Date27 December 2008 – 18 January 2009
(3 weeks and 1 day)LocationGaza Strip and Southern IsraelResultIsraeli military victory[2][3][4][5]IDF declared unilateral ceasefire, 12 hours later Hamas announced a one-week ceasefire.[6][7]Humanitarian crisis and deterioration of infrastructure and basic services in Gaza.[8]Number of rockets being fired from Gaza reduced.See results
 IsraelIsrael Defense ForcesIsrael Security Agency Gaza Strip[1] HamasIzz ad-Din al-Qassam Popular Front for the Liberation of PalestineAbu Ali Mustapha Brigades Islamic Jihad Movement in PalestineAl-Quds Brigades FatahAl-Aqsa Martyrs’Popular Resistance Committees
Commanders and leaders
 Ehud Olmert
Prime Minister
 Ehud Barak
Minister of Defense
 Gabi Ashkenazi
Chief of General Staff
 Yoav Galant
Southern Command
 Ido Nehoshtan
Air Force
 Eli Marom
 Eyal Eisenberg
Gaza Division
 Yuval Diskin
Internal Security Service
 Khaled Mashal[9]
 Ismail Haniyeh
 Said Seyam 
 Mohammed Deif
 Abu Zakaria al-Jamal 
 Ahmed Jabari
 Tawfik Jaber [10]
 Osama Mazini
 Nizar Rayan [10]
 Mahmoud al-Zahar
 Ramadan Shallah
IDF: 4,000[11]–20,000[12] deployed in ground invasion and tens of thousands of reservists mobilized[13] (176,000 total active personnel)[14]Hamas (Izzedine Al-Qassam Brigades and paramilitary police): 20,000 (est. total)[15][16]
Other Palestinian paramilitary forces: 10,000[17]
Casualties and losses
Total killed: 13
Soldiers: 10 (friendly fire: 4)[18]
Civilians: 3
Total wounded: 518
Soldiers: 336[19]
Civilians: 182[19]
Total killed: 1,166–1,417[fn 1]Militants and police officers:
491* (255 police officers, 236 fighters) (PCHR),[22][23] 600* (B’Tselem),[21] 709 (IDF),[20] 600–700 (Hamas)[24]
Civilians: 926 (PCHR),[22] 759 (B’Tselem),[21] 295 (IDF)[20]
Total wounded: 5,303 (PCHR)[22]Total captured: 120 (IDF)
One Egyptian border guard officer killed and three wounded, and two children wounded.[25][26]
Over 50,800 Gaza residents displaced.[27]Over 4,000 homes destroyed; around $2bn worth of damage to Gaza[28]
*255 (PCHR)[22] or 265 (B’Tselem)[21] police officers were killed.
table imported from wikipedia


The Islamic Republic of Iran is a key patron of the Palestinian militant organization Hamas, which has controlled the Gaza Strip since 2006. Iran provides Hamas with funds, weapons, and training.

According to a 2020 U.S. State Department report, Iran provides about $100 million annually to Palestinian militant groups, including Hamas. As of 2023, according to an Israeli security source, Iran had significantly increased its funding for Hamas to $350 million a year.


At around 6:30 a.m. Israel Summer Time (UTC+3) on Saturday, 7 October 2023, Hamas announced the start of the operation, which it called Operation Al-Aqsa Flood. Hamas commander Mohammed Deif, in an audio message, declared the operation was “to end the last occupation on Earth”.eif said the attack was in response to the 16-year blockade of Gaza, Israeli incursions in West Bank cities, violence at Al-Aqsa mosque, and Israeli settler violence.[91] Shortly thereafter, Hamas Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh made a similar announcement in a televised address.

Deif said more than 5,000 rockets had been fired from the Gaza Strip into Israel in a span of 20 minutes at the start of the operation. Israeli sources reported the launch of 3,000 projectiles from Gaza, killing five. Explosions were reported in areas surrounding Gaza and in the Sharon Plain, including GederaHerzliyyaTel Aviv, and Ashkelon. Air raid sirens were activated in Beer ShevaJerusalemRehovotRishon Lezion, and Palmachim Airbase. Hamas issued a call to arms, with Deif calling on “Muslims everywhere to launch an attack”.

Palestinian militants also opened fire on Israeli boats off the Gaza Strip, while clashes broke out between Palestinians and the Israel Defense Forces in the eastern section of the Gaza perimeter fence. In the evening Hamas launched another barrage of about 150 rockets towards Israel, with explosions reported in YavneGivatayimBat YamBeit Dagan, Tel Aviv, and Rishon Lezion.

Soon after the start of the Hamas operation, there were reports that many civilians and soldiers had been taken as captives back to the Gaza Strip. Later in the day Hamas announced it had captured enough Israeli soldiers to force a prisoner swap,[194] and Israel confirmed hostages had been taken.[195]

In Be’eri, up to 50 people were taken hostage; after an 18-hour standoff between militants and IDF forces, they were freed.[196] Hostages were also reported taken in Ofakim, where policemen led by Chief Superintendent Jayar Davidov engaged Palestinian militants in a shootout;[when?] Davidov and three of his men were killed, and the IDF later rescued two Israeli hostages in the suburb of Urim.[196] There were reports of militants killing and stealing family pets.[197]

Hamas took many hostages back to Gaza. On 16 October, they said they were holding 250 hostages[198] and that it had done so to force Israel to release its Palestinian prisoners.[199] Some of the hostages, including three members of the Bibas family, were subsequently handed over to other militant groups. Palestinian Islamic Jihad ended up holding at least 30 of the hostages, but it is unclear whether they or Hamas originally kidnapped them.

According to Ariel Merari, the raiders “were ordered to kidnap as many [people] as possible… [and] they intentionally kidnapped a populace that is sensitive from the aspect of Israeli public opinion”.[200] Merari doubts that Hamas will agree to releasing all of the hostages in “one go” regardless of how many of its prisoners are released, since the hostages are its only guarantee against complete destruction at Israel’s hands.[200] He believes Hamas will try to force a ceasefire and protract the release for weeks or months, until an Israeli offensive is no longer seen as viable


Russia has diplomatic relations with the political wing of Hamas, the Palestinian Islamist organization which rules the Gaza Strip. Russia has not designated Hamas as a terrorist organization, though it has condemned Hamas attacks as “terrorism” and has taken a hard line against Islamist terrorism. Russia has also maintained relations with Israel.


india has condemned the october 7 attacks and so did china.


US has benefitted a lot from the war with israel buying lots of weapons from usa.


china has been investing heavely on myanmars infrastructure

China is a key supplier of military aid to Myanmar, including jet fighters, armored vehicles, and naval vessels. China has also trained Myanmar’s army, air force, and naval personnel since 1989. 

China’s investment in Myanmar is also significant:

  • Since 1988, China has been an approved investor in Myanmar, accounting for 26% of total foreign direct investment (FDI) until 2019.
  • China has invested $113 million in Myanmar since the military coup in 2021.
  • China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has led to consistent investments in physical infrastructure projects through the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor (CMEC). 

In addition, China’s diplomatic intervention in Myanmar has been described as supporting the junta. China may be helping to slow the evolution of the resistance movement, which could ensure the long-term survival of the junta. 

China’s involvement in Myanmar is due to its strategic location, where big powers have long jostled for influence

myanmar purchases more chinese military equipment especially j-20


The Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) is an organization that was formed in 2013 when Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of al-Qaida’s Iraqi branch, merged with al-Qaida’s Syrian franchise. At its peak in 2014, ISIS controlled a large portion of Syria and Iraq, including government resources, industry, commerce, and agriculture. By December 2017, ISIS had lost 95% of its territory, including Mosul and Raqqa. In March 2019, ISIS was forced out of the last of its territory in Syria and Iraq

Iraqi special forces in mosul after capturing mosul from islamic state(ISIS) (ISIL)


The Islamic State – also known as ISIS, ISIL, or Daesh – emerged from the remnants of al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI), a local offshoot of al Qaeda founded by Abu Musab al Zarqawi in 2004. It faded into obscurity for several years after the surge of U.S. troops to Iraq in 2007. But it began to reemerge in 2011. Over the next few years, it took advantage of growing instability in Iraq and Syria to carry out attacks and bolster its ranks.

The group changed its name to the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) in 2013. ISIS launched an offensive on Mosul and Tikrit in June 2014. On June 29, ISIS leader Abu Bakr al Baghdadi announced the formation of a caliphate stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Diyala in Iraq, and renamed the group the Islamic State.

A U.S.-led coalition began airstrikes against ISIS in Iraq on August 7, 2014, and expanded the campaign to Syria the following month. On October 15, the United States named the campaign “Operation Inherent Resolve.” Over the next year, the United States conducted more than 8,000 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria. ISIS suffered key losses along Syria’s border with Turkey, and by the end of 2015, Iraqi forces had made progress in recapturing Ramadi. But in Syria, ISIS made gains near Aleppo, and still firmly held Raqqa and other strongholds.

In 2015, ISIS expanded into a network of affiliates in at least eight other countries. Its branches, supporters, and affiliates increasingly carried out attacks beyond the borders of its so-called caliphate. In October, ISIS’s Egypt affiliate bombed a Russian airplane, killing 224 people. On November 13, 130 people were killed and more than 300 injured in a series of coordinated attacks in Paris. And in June 2016, a gunman who pledged support to ISIS killed at least four dozen people at a nightclub in Orlando, Florida. 


On 30 September 2015, Russia launched a military intervention in Syria after a request by the government of Bashar al-Assad for military support in its fight against the Syrian opposition and Islamic State (IS) in the Syrian civil war. The intervention was kick-started by extensive air strikes across Syria, focused on attacking opposition strongholds of the Free Syrian Army along with the rebel coalition of the Revolutionary Command Council and Sunni militant groups under the Army of Conquest coalition. In line with Ba’athist Syrian propaganda which denounces all armed resistance to its rule as “terrorism”; Syrian military chief Ali Abdullah Ayoub depicted Russian airstrikes as facilitating their campaign against terrorism. Russian special operations forcesmilitary advisors and private military contractors like the Wagner Group were also sent to Syria to support the Assad regime, which was on the verge of collapse. Prior to the intervention, Russian involvement had been heavily invested in providing Assad with diplomatic cover and propping up the Syrian Arab Armed Forces with billions of dollars of arms and equipment. In December 2017, the Russian government announced that its troops would be deployed to Syria permanently.

Humanitarian support: Armenia
In support of: Syrian Democratic Forces (2016–2017) Russia
In support of: Turkey (2017, against ISIL during Operation Euphrates Shield)
 Al-Qaeda Al-Nusra Front (2013–2016) Jabhat Fath al-Sham (2016–2017) Jund al-Aqsa (2017–2018) Guardians of Religion (2018–) Islamic State Army of Conquest (2015–2017)[9]
Supported by: Turkey  Saudi Arabia (2015–2017)[ Qatar Tahrir al-Sham (2017–present)
Supported by: Qatar Syrian opposition Free Syrian Army Syrian Turkmen Brigades] Jaysh al-Islam[17]
Supported by: Turkey[18] Saudi Arabia (2015–2017)[12][19] United States (2015–2017)[20][21][22][23][a] Syrian Democratic Forces (2017–2019)[24]
Commanders and leaders
 Vladimir Putin
 Sergey Shoygu
 Valery Gerasimov
 Viktor Bondarev
 Sergey Rudskoy
(Chief of Gen Staff. Ops. Dept.)
 Aleksandr Dvornikov[41]
(September 2015 – June 2016)
 Alexander Zhuravlyov[42]
(July–December 2016)
 Andrey Kartapolov[43]
(December 2016 – March 2017)
 Sergey Surovikin
(March–December 2017)[44]
 Alexander Zhuravlyov[45]
(December 2017 – September 2018)
 Sergey Kuralenko
[46]September–October 2018
 Aleksandr Lapin[47]
(October 2018 – January 2019)
 Sergey Surovikin[48]
(January–April 2019)
 Andrey Serdyukov[48](April–September 2019)
 Aleksandr Chaiko[49][50]
(September 2019 – November 2020)
 Sergey Kuzovlev[51]
(November 2020 – February 2021)
 Aleksandr Chaiko[52]
February–June 2021
 Yevgeny Nikiforov
(June–October 2021)
 Roman Berdnikov
(October 2021-September 2022)
 Andrey Serdyukov
(September 2022-November 2023)
 Sergey Kissel
(since November 2023)
Valery Asapov 
 Vyacheslav Gladich [53]
Field commanders of Al-Qaeda:
 Abu Abdollah Jabal  (al-Nusra Front senior commander in Aleppo)[54][unreliable source?]
 Abu Muhammad al-Shimali  (Senior leader)[55]  Abu Hajer al-Homsi  (al-Nusra Front top military commander)[56]
 Ahmad al-Ghizai  (al-Nusra Front security service chief)
 Khalid al-Aruri  (Guardians of Religion)[57][58]
 Abu Humam al-Shami (Guardians of Religion)[59][self-published source?]
 Sami al-Oraydi (Guardians of Religion)[60]
 Saif al-Adel (Guardians of Religion)[61]
 Abu ‘Abd al-Karim al-Masri (Guardians of Religion)[62]
 Sari Shihab  (Guardians of Religion)
 Abu Adnan al-Homsi  (former logistics and equipment commander, Guardians of Religion)[63]
 Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi  (Leader until 3 February 2022)
 Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi  (Leader until 27 October 2019)
 Abu Mohammad al-Adnani  (Spokesperson)
 Abu Suleiman al-Naser  (Replacement Military Chief)[64]
 Abu Omar al-Shishani  (Senior commander in Syria)[65][66]
 Gulmurod Khalimov  (Minister of war in Syria)[55]
 Abu Musab al-Masri  (Minister of war in Syria)[67]
 Basil Zamo  (1st Coastal Division chief of staff)[68]
 Abu Yahia al-Hamawi[69] (Leader of Ahrar al-Sham)
 Nimr Al-Shukri  (Top military commander of Ahrar al-Sham)[70]
 Zahran Alloush  (emir of Jaysh al-Islam)
 Abu Rida al-Turkistani  (Leader of TIP)[71]
Abu Mohammad al-Julani (Emir of Tahrir al-Sham)
Abdullah al-Muhaysini (Top sharia judge of the Army of Conquest and later a senior member of Tahrir al-Sham)
Abu Jaber (Second Emir of Ahrar al-Sham, First Emir and current Shura head of Tahrir al-Sham)
 Salahuddin Shishani  (Former al-Nusra Front commander and current Tahrir al-Sham top military commander)[72]
Abu Salman al-Belarusi (Abu Rofiq)  (Leader of Malhama Tactical)[73]
Abu Ubeidah al-Kansafra  (Top military commander of Tahrir al-Sham)[74][unreliable source?]
12 unknown military commanders [75]
Units involved
Russian Armed Forces:Aerospace ForcesRussian Navy[76]Black Sea FleetCaspian Flotilla[77]Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU)Special operations forcesMilitary PoliceForeign Intelligence Service (SVR)Zaslon [ru][78]Federal Security Service (FSB)Spetsgruppa “K” advisors[79]Wagner GroupArmed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran:IRGCBasijIranian ArmyArmed Forces of Armenia:12th Peacekeeping Brigadeal-Nusra Front (2015–17)[80]Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria[81]Guardians of ReligionMilitary of ISFree Syrian ArmyLevant Front[82]Free Idlib ArmyMountain Hawks Brigade[83]13th Division[84]Northern DivisionJaish al-Izzah[85]Jaysh al-NasrHarakat Nour al-Din al-Zenki (2015–19)Ahrar ash-ShamArmy of Conquest (2015–17)
Tahrir al-Sham (2017–present)Liwa al-HaqqJund al-Aqsa (2015–17)[86]
Ajnad al-Sham (2015–
from wikipedia


Mohammed Emwazi
BornMuhammad Jassim Abdulkarim Olayan al-Dhafiri
17 August 1988[1]
Al JahraKuwait[2]
Died12 November 2015 (aged 27)
Cause of deathDrone strike
Other names“Mohammed Emwazi”[3]
“John the Beatle”[4]
“Jailer John”[5]
Abu Abdullah al-Britani[6]
Abu Muharib al-Yemeni[7]
Mohammed al-Ayan[8]
Muhammad ibn Muazzam[9]
Mohammed Al-Zuhary[10]
Abu Muharib al-Muhajir[11] Jihadi John[3]
EducationBSc (lower second-class honours) in Information Systems with Business Management from the University of Westminster (2009)[13][14]
Known forIslamic State beheading incidents
Military career
Allegiance Al-Nusra Front (2012–13)[7]
 Islamic State (2013–15)[7]
Years of service2012–2015[15]
Battles/warsSyriaSyrian Civil WarAmerican-led intervention in Syria
from wikipedia

Mohammed Emwazi (born Muhammad Jassim Abdulkarim Olayan al-DhafiriArabic: محمد جاسم عبد الكريم عليان الظفيري;‎ 17 August 1988 – 12 November 2015) was a British militant of Kuwaiti origin seen in several videos produced by the Islamist extremist group Islamic State (IS) showing the beheadings of a number of captives in 2014 and 2015. A group of his hostages nicknamed him “John” since he was part of a four-person terrorist cell with English accents whom they called ‘The Beatles‘; the press later began calling him “Jihadi John“.[3]

On 12 November 2015, United States officials reported that Emwazi had been hit by a drone strike in RaqqaSyria.[16] His death was confirmed by IS in January 2016.[11]

Early life[edit]

Emwazi was born Muhammad Jassim Abdulkarim Olayan al-Dhafiri[17] on 17 August 1988 in Kuwait[1] as the eldest of five children[18] to Jassem and Ghaneyah Emwazi.[15] The family, who were Bidoon of Iraqi origin,[15] lived in the Taima area of the town of Al Jahra, which was known as a “slumtown” where stateless people were ghettoized by the Kuwaiti government.[19] They were undocumented, considered stateless and without Kuwaiti citizenship status.[19] The family moved to the United Kingdom in 1994 when he was six.[20] They settled in inner west London, moving between several properties in Maida Vale,[18] later living in St John’s Wood and finally in Queen’s Park.[18][21] Emwazi attended St Mary Magdalene Church of England primary school, and later Quintin Kynaston School.[22]

In 2006, he went to the University of Westminster, studying Information Systems with Business Management. He secured a lower second-class Bachelor of Science honours degree on graduation three years later.[22] At age 21, he worked as a salesman at an IT company in Kuwait and was considered by his boss as the best employee the company ever had.[15]

At some point[when?] he became a British citizen.[12]


Emwazi was given the nickname “John” by a group of his hostages. The hostages said that he guarded Western hostages while handling communications with their families, and was part of a terrorist cell they called ‘The Beatles‘ because the cell members all had British accents.[23] The nickname refers to John Lennon of the Beatles; the three other group members were each given the first name of one of the other Beatles.

The nicknames “Jihadi John”, “Jailer John” and “John the Beatle” were created by journalists.[3] “Jihadi John” was used on 20 August 2014 in the conservative magazine The Spectator in a piece titled “Jihadi John – a very British export” by Douglas Murray, a frequent critic of Islam,[24] and soon after joined by the BBC and other sources.[25]


See also: Islamic State beheading incidents

The following are reported victims of Jihadi John:

James Foley[edit]

Main article: James Foley (journalist)

In a video uploaded to YouTube on 19 August 2014, Foley read a prepared statement criticising the United States, the recent airstrikes in Iraq, and his brother who serves in the US Air Force.[26] Emwazi, wearing a mask, also read a prepared statement in which he criticised US and President Barack Obama and made demands to cease the 2014 American-led intervention in Iraq.[26] The masked man then beheaded Foley off-camera, after which he threatened to behead Steven Sotloff if his demands were not met.[27] The FBI and US National Security Council confirmed that the video, which included footage of Foley’s beheaded corpse, was genuine.[26]

On 12 November 2015, two United States drone aircraft[88] along with a British drone conducted an airstrike in Raqqa that targeted Emwazi as he left a building and entered a vehicle.[89] US officials stated he had been killed,[90] and a senior US military official was quoted as saying, “we are 99% sure we got him.”[88] A US official called it a “flawless” and “clean hit” with no collateral damage and that Emwazi was “evaporated.”[90] On 14 December 2015, US President Barack Obama stated Emwazi had been “taken out”.[91]

UK Prime Minister, David Cameron, stated the UK and the US had been working “hand in glove, round the clock” to track Emwazi’s location, and that the drone strike was “an act of self-defence.”[16][92]

On 19 January 2016, in the IS magazine Dabiq, the group confirmed that Emwazi had been killed by a drone strike in Raqqa.[93] The obituary showed him unmasked and referred to him as Abu Muharib al-Muhajir.[11][94] Further photographs showing him unmasked in Syria were released on 26 January 2016.[95]


The Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) lost control of all of its Middle Eastern territories by 2019. In March 2019, the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) and the U.S.-led Global Coalition took control of Al-Baghouz, the last stronghold of ISIS in Syria. On March 23, 2019, Baghouz fell, formally ending ISIS’s claim to any territory

Although losing its territories in iraq and syria ISIS is still capable of combat operations on iraqi government forces.


the author is aaron yogindar

Ukraine invasion: what happens if Kyiv falls and Volodymyr Zelensky’s government is toppled?

  • The Ukrainian president has voiced his intention to stay, but experts say if the capital fell to Russian forces he would either be killed or become a prisoner
  • If Zelensky fled, he could set up operations in western Ukraine, and Putin would likely install his hand-selected government in Kyiv
  • As Russia’s pounds Ukraine, causing death and destruction, it has not yet seized the nation’s capital, Kyiv.
  • Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky, who says he’s the Kremlin’s No 1 target, has vowed to stay in the country, even as Russian troops bear down on Kyiv.
  • “According to our information, the enemy marked me as target No 1, my family, as target No 2,” Zelensky said in a video statement on Thursday. “They want to destroy Ukraine politically by destroying the head of state. We have information that enemy sabotage groups have entered Kyiv.”
  • Zelensky’s whereabouts are under wraps after he told European leaders in a call on Thursday that they might not see him again alive. But he said he will be staying in the capital.
  • On Friday, Zelensky posted a short video proclaiming Ukraine’s continued defence against the Russian invasion. His defiance came even as questions swirled on social media about whether leaders had begun fleeing.
  • “We are all here,” said Zelensky, who was surrounded by a handful of leaders.
  • “Our is here, citizens are here. We are all here defending our independence, our state and it will be so further. Glory to our defenders, glory to Ukraine!”Zelensky also spoke with US President Joe Biden for 40 minutes on Friday about strengthening sanctions against Russia and other steps to retaliate for Moscow’s invasion of Ukraine.
  • A few hours later, the Biden administration announced that it will join the European Union in imposing fresh sanctions against Russian President Vladimir Putin and some of his deputies.
  • Putin ordered an invasion of the neighbouring country, an assault that began in eastern Europe’s predawn hours on Thursday.
  • Here is what it would mean for Zelensky if Russia seized Kyiv: